Its odour resembles that of chloroform and hence leaks can be easily detected. hydrochloric acid (HCl), Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosgene (CCL2O). Smaller systems used toxic sulfur dioxide or flamma- bleandtoxicmethylchloride.Thedemandfor safer refrigerants—suitable for use in homes and public spaces—prompted the develop-ment of a class of halogenated compounds known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons … In sum, refrigerants in class “3” are highly flammable; refrigerants in class “2” are considered less flammable; and those in class “2L” are mildly flammable. Artificial cooling systems keep industry running, and many of these systems use anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant. It is well suited for one or two stage reciprocating compressors. As a refrigerant, ammonia is known under the refrigeration designation R717 and is produced synthetically for use in refrigeration technology. Classification value Start date End date; ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier : 031315 : Refrigeration And Air Conditioning Mechanics 05/Oct/2020 : The content being displayed has been produced by a third party, while all attempts have been made to make this content as accessible as possible it cannot be guaranteed. The first patent for ammonia compressor was granted to David Boyle (1837 – 1891) in 1872. These refrigerants are halogen derivates of saturated hydrocarbon i.e., of methane, ethane etc. 3. Ammonia refrigeration plants typically have the following release sources: 1. The ammonia is the chemical that is used to absorb the heat from one area, and bring it to another area to dissipate. It is readily available, inexpensive, operates at pressures comparable with other refrigerants and is The density of ammonia is smaller than that of air and lubricating oil. What are the hazards of ammonia refrigeration, and what can be done to keep workers safe? BRE IP18/00 - This standard gives preliminary guidance on how to overcome problems associated with assumptions made for safe locations for ammonia refrigeration systems. Air, ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) were the only four refrigerants which has survived the adolescent stage. Appearance: Colourless gas. Sign-up to receive periodic email updates about the content shared on the Bacharach blog. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. Our refrigerant grade ammonia is 99.98% pure with minimal levels of moisture and other impurities, making it ideal for use in all types of refrigeration systems. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineering (ASHRAE) Standard 34 classifies refrigerants by hazard based on toxicity and flammability. With rotary compressors and in absorption units. There are four classes of flammability: 1, 2L, 2 or 3. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. New Refrigerants Designation and Safety Classifications E360 Forum • Raleigh, N.C. • March 1, 2017 ... Ammonia, CO 2,etc.) Formerly the number of useful refrigerants was very limited. Advantages of the secondary refrigerants over the direct cooling system are: 1. Primary refrigerants are those fluids, which are used directly as working fluids, for example in vapor compression and vapor absorption refrigeration systems. It is somewhat toxic. CAS Registry No. Ammonia is the most environmentally friendly refrigerant. Quality Refrigerant Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia Classification and Industrial Grade for sale, Buy Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia products from industrial-ammonia manufacturer. The exact location of leak is shown by the dense white fumes produced by burning sulphur taper or by use of test papers. In fact, refrigerants are designated in the 2L subclass if they have a maximum burning velocity of 3.9 in./s (10 cm/s) or lower when tested at 73.4°F (23.0°C) and 14.7 psia (101.3 kPa). You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. Somewhat later methyl chloride (CH 3 Cl) came in general use for domestic and commercial units but since the development of the fluorinated hydrocarbons, a great variety of refrigerants has been put at the disposal of the refrigerating engineer. Properties. The best suited refrigerant may be selected on the basis on its characteristics and the type of service under consideration. Thus some are not suitable for reciprocating and some for centrifugal compressors and some are well suited for low temperature work and some for heat pumps. It does affect copper, iron or steel-methyl chloride dissolves practically all types of oil and glycerin. 7. The Business Case for Refrigerant Management, Advances in Refrigerant Detection Instruments for Safety Compliance, MVR-300 Offers Leak Detection for Occupied Spaces, Room with a Leak: the Need for VRF Leak Detection. Applications. Emergency telephone number Emergency number : CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300 SECTION 2: Hazard(s) identification 2.1. It is non-inflammable. Generally, this guideline provides minimum information and recommendations on how It is a working fluid through which heat is transferred from the cold body to the hot body. Ammonia refrigeration systems are, as the name implies, a system of refrigeration that uses ammonia. Ammonia CAS RN: 7664-41-7 NFPA Hazard Classification. It is non-inflammable and non-explosive. 2) Secondary Refrigerant. They are highly flammable but possess satisfactory thermodynamic properties. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Carbon-carbon double bond. At atmospheric pressure it boils at -33°C and is therefore suitable for low temperature work. Industrial Refrigeration. It is a colourless, pungent, highly toxic gas but is a very efficient refrigerant with zero Global Warming Potential (GWP). It also establishes a system for assigning a safety classification to refrigerants based on toxicity and flammability data, and provides a means of determining the refrigerant concentration limit. The first character shows the toxicity and the numeral, with or without a suffix letter, indicates the flammability. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. (By contrast, R-32 is 36,000 ppm; R-32 has a low toxicity but it is flammable. Ammonia has been used as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology for 125 years. Content Guidelines 2. The equipment used for removing the heat continuously for maintaining a low temperature in a space is called 'refrigerator'. ISO 817- This International Standard provides an unambiguous system for assigning designations to refrigerants. It has no corrosive effect on copper, copper alloys, iron or steel. Manfred Hofmann, expert and head of dka training at ENGIE Refrigeration, says: “NH3, or R717, is one of only a few climate-neutral refrigerants, in that it neither damages the ozone layer nor contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ammonia has no ozone depletion potential (ODP = … We offer: World Class Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration Equipment; Installation; Design Refrigeration •For self-contained systems, allowable charge limit ranges depend on application – Class 2 or 2L: Range 150–500 grams (5.3–17.7 oz) – Class 3: Range 50–150 grams (1.7–5.3 oz) [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. In the broadest sense the term refrigerant is also applied to the cooling medium like cold water, brine solution and antifreezes. Class A refrigerants are refrigerants for which toxicity has not been identified at concentrations less than or equal to 400 parts per million (PPM) by volume, based on data used to determine threshold limit values (TLV)-time weighted average (TWA) or consistent indices. This group is mainly hydrocarbon group of base ethylene C2H4 and propylene C3H6. It has a very pungent and suffocating odour. The refrigerant used does not leave the system but is circulated throughout the system alternately condensing and evaporating. Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. With patents worldwide, ARESCO brings solutions for your refrigeration needs that lead the way. It is one of the refrigerants commonly used in household refrigerators because of the very low working pressure. Nowadays numbers of refrigerants are commercially available and these are classified into several groups as under: This group is a chemical compound formed from the base methane CH4 and ethane C2H6 and includes refrigerants which contain one or more of the three halogens i.e., Chlorine, Fluorine and Bromide. However, Carl von Linde (1842 – 1934) is credited for perfecting the ammonia refrigeration technology and The best suited refrigerant may be selected on the basis of its characteristics and the type of service under consideration. How do these systems work? It is inflammable but does not been reality. The refrigerants generally used for this purpose are ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur-dioxide (SO2). The auto ignition temperature is 1,204°F if catalyzed and 1,570°F if un-catalyzed. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Its boiling point at atmospheric pressure is -10°C. AS/NZS 5149 Refrigerating systems and heat pumps – Safety and environmental requirements, Part 1 to 4. Easy to handle and easy to control its flow. Tanner Industries, Inc. 735 Davisville Road, Southampton, PA 18966 Phone: 1-215-322-1238 But centrifugal compressors are used with success. It is not miscible with oil. R-152a: B2 A2L* R-32, R-1234yf, R-1234ze(E) B2L* R-717 (Ammonia / NH 3) No Flame Propagation: A1 R-22, R-124a, R-410A, R-1233zd(E), R-404A, R-407C, R-507A, R-744 (Carbon Dioxide / CO 2) B1 R-123 Image Guidelines 4. As a result of the continued refurbishment of older installations, the importance of these refrigerants is clearly on the decline. 4. Now its use as a refrigerant in the proper sense of the word is on the decline but it is increas­ingly used as dry ice. It is mostly used for reciprocating compressors. The safety group classification for each refrigerant has two or three alphanumeric characters (e.g., B1 or A2L). Safety Standards for Ammonia Refrigeration. Ammonia, widely used in ice-making plants, is toxic and flammable, although difficult to ignite. ASHRAE considers that the continued use of ammonia is necessary for food preservation and air conditioning. It is vital to understand what refrigerants are in your system, and to make sure that the system complies with the requirements for leak checking and the phase down schedule of your particular gas. All electrical equipment and appliances conform to Class 1, Division 2, hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70 where the quantity of any Group A2, B2, A3 or B3 refrigerant, other than ammonia, in a single independent circuit would exceed 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) upon release to the space. Historically, most refrigerants used in HVAC&R prod- ucts were Class 1, or nonflammable. Structural classification of refrigerants * Service refrigerants contain HCFC as blend component. A2 Several blends that are not in widespread use A2L New refrigerants -HFOs, Some HFCs and blends. Plagiarism Prevention 5. It is used for reciprocating compressor only. Although a refrigerant has not been found yet which has all the desirable properties, Freon-12 carbon dioxide and ammonia are commonly used for very low temperature work because of their low boiling points. : 7664-41-7 Other Names: Anhydrous ammonia, Liquid ammonia Main Uses: Used as a fertilizer, to make plastics, fibers and other chemicals, as a refrigerant, and in many other applications. It attacks many non-ferrous metals like copper, zinc, brass etc. It is highly toxic. It requires low volume of gas to be circulated per ton of refrigeration. The tables contained on this page list approved refrigerant numbers from ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2019, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, the latest edition of Standard 34, which describes a shorthand way of naming refrigerants and assigns safety classifications based on toxicity and flammability data. No refrigerant may be ideal for all jobs. 30% of agricultural nitrogen applied in the US is in the form of anhydrous ammonia and worldwide 110 million tonnes are applied each year. This group contains oxygen element e.g., ethyl-ether C2H5OC2H6. These include; A lack of understanding of the science of ammonia refrigeration and the implications for design and modification. The range of application goes from small commercial units to medium size industrial units. 34 kg . The refrigerant should be chemically stable. Classification of refrigerant: Fluids suitable for refrigeration purposes can be classified into primary and secondary refrigerants. Bacharach’s award-winning Parasense Refrigerant Tracking Software has been helping stakeholders stay compliant and reduce refrigerant leaks for over 30 years. In certain countries it has been ap­plied in household refrigerators. Supplier JR Simplot Company P.O. Please fill out the form and submit it to us. The development of the fluorinated refrigerants with the manufacture of F-12 which rapidly gained a widespread application in household units and commercial plants. F-114 Dichlorotetrafluoro ethane CClF2CCIF2. When heat is applied to ammonia hydroxide, ammonia is released in vapour form. The critical temperature should be high. Packaging information. It is readily available and its cost is low. The new and improved IIAR 2 is the definitive design safety standard of the ammonia refrigeration industry. Concentrated ammonia is much colder than typical room temperature, which makes it an excellent choice for keeping things cool. Mixtures Not applicable SECTION 4: First-aid measures 4.1. “Everyone” means every person with responsibility through ownership, consultancy, design, construction, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance, inspection, repair, systems that use Refrigerant R‐717 (ammonia). This group contains nitrogen element e.g., methyl-amine CH3NH2. It is a working fluid through which heat is transferred from the cold body to the hot body. Area Classification: The room containing equipment with ammonia refrigerant is classified as ordinary location where the room is provided with emergency ventilation. Formerly this refrigerant was prepared for marine work and in dairies. 9. Related Information: 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. Primary refrigerants as commonly interpreted include only those working medium which actually pass through the cycle of evaporation, compression, condensation and liquefaction e.g., NH3, CO2, SO2, Freon group etc. The boiling temperature should be low. The specific volume of water vapour at atmospheric temperatures is very great and hence reciprocating compressors cannot be used. Contact Us Directly. Problematic procedures may be to blame. As refrigeration is a process of heat removal, for this purpose a medium for heat transfer is necessary. This document describes key safety measures that should be in place at any ammonia refrigeration facility. Ammonia. The refrigerator selected for service should possess-as many qualities as practicable out of the following: 1. Ammonia, CO 2,etc.) Failure(s) to select, install, maintain, check and use systems correctly; Uploader Agreement. The pressure differential drives the Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. But for the units used in household refrigerants, there is a wide range of available refrigerants each of which in comparison with others has certain desirable qualities. Refrigerant. Industrial Chemicals (CO 2, Hydrocarbons, Ammonia) + How HFOs Work 6 HFC ... Class 2 vs. 3 Flammability classification is based on: Heat of … It is well suited for reciprocating and rotary compressors. It is used in operating on absorption system of refrigeration. Classification of refrigerant: Fluids suitable for refrigeration purposes can be classified into primary and secondary refrigerants. BP at atm-pressure = – 78.5°C. Temperatures can be controlled by controlling the flow. Lengths of the primary refrigerants pipe or tubing can be eliminated thereby pressure drop and leakages of the primary refrigerants are eliminated to a large extent. 11. Moreover, Class 3 is for refrigerants that, when tested, exhibit flame propagation at 140°F (60°C) and 14.7 psia (101.3 kPa) and that either have a heat of combustion of 19,000 kJ/kg (8,174 BTU/lb) or greater or a LFL of 0.10 kg/m3 or lower. Such a medium of heat transfer, which absorbs heat by evaporating at low temperature and gives up heat by condensing at high temperature and pressure is termed as refrigerant. Involving Ammonia Refrigeration System. Packaging information. There are thus number of refrigerants commercially available and are sold under different trade names. Bacharach operational status and COVID-19 response details. The specific volume of vapour should be low. B1 Some obscure refrigerants like sulfur dioxide B2L Ammonia B2 & B3 Some obscure refrigerants. Air, ammonia (NH 3), carbon dioxide (CO 2), sulphur dioxide (SO 2) were the only four refrigerants which has survived the adolescent stage. It is available in five generally recognized grades—fertilizer, refrigerant, federal, metallurgical, and semiconductor—depending on its level of purity. 12. It has low working pressure, fairly high latent heat and high critical temperature. Concentrated ammonia is much colder than typical room temperature, which makes it an excellent choice for keeping things cool. It is very corrosive when in contact with moisture and therefore extreme care should be taken to prevent even the slightest bit of moisture entering to system to avoid the formation of sulphurous (H2SO3) acid which is corrosive in effect. The tables contained on this page list approved refrigerant numbers from ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2019, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, the latest edition of Standard 34, which describes a shorthand way of naming refrigerants and assigns safety classifications based on toxicity and flammability data. Ammonia Refrigeration shares many similarities to standard vapor compression refrigeration, including: 1. Name : Anhydrous Ammonia - Refrigeration Grade Name Product identifier % GHS-US classification Anhydrous Ammonia H331 (CAS No) 7664-41-7 99.9 Acute Tox. Odour: Ammonia-like Canadian TDG: UN1005 F-22 has been increasingly used in recent years as a substitute for F-12. Reduces the number of stages for a given pressure ratio. F-12 attacks natural rubber. Standards Australia has recently released five new Standards relating to refrigeration systems and refrigerant designation which has superseded the equivalent existing standards AS/NZS 1677.1 Refrigerating systems, Part 1: Refrigerant classification and AS/NZS 1677.2 Refrigerating systems, Part 2: Safety requirements for fixed applications which have been in use since 1998. The condensing pressure should not be excessive. ASHRAE Position Document on Ammonia as a Refrigerant (PDF) (1 pg, 408 K) Contact A-Gas direct on 0215518790; Product Features & Benefits. One of our sales representatives will contact you. 230 kg . Employers are required to communicate the hazards associated with working with ammonia to appropriate employees. Recommended use and restrictions on use No additional information available 1.3. F-11 is the least stable refrigerant of Freon group. Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless alkaline gas, Electronic Fluorocarbons offers three purities in a range of cylinder sizes and RFO. We can offer product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a range of cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications. By continuing to use our site, you consent to our cookie policy. They are all safe as long as they do not come into contact with red hot surfaces or open fire. 1) Primary Refrigerant. Classification of Refrigerants 3. The introduction of ammonia as a refrigerant was one of the milestone events in history of refrigerants. The properties of F-21 are similar to those of other fluorinated refrigerants. Due to high working pressure, the compressors, condenser and pipe connecting them must be designed for greater strength. If is miscible with oil. Ammonia (NH 3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety.. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. The absorbent with a high concentration of ammonia refrigerant in solution is heated to drive the refrigerant out of solution and produce high pressure ammonia vapor. 500 kg . This group consist of mixtures of refrigerants which do not separate into their compounds with pressure or temperature changes and have fixed thermodynamic properties, e.g., F-500(F-12-.73.8% + F-152, 26.2%). Now, the software is free in a bid to drive down emissions even further. Prohibited Content 3. Company product code 1670. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. 8. 1.1 Purpose Hence, a guideline is developed for related industries with the purpose of promoting safe management on ammonia refrigeration system for industrial application at their workplace. Ammonia is a safety classification group B2L refrigerant. In Tech / Application Notes by BacharachNovember 12, 2019. Leakage is easily detected on account of its pungent odour and the white smoke which forms when strong ammonia water (28% solution) is brought in the presence of gas. Mass of F-12 is much more for a given output than ammonia plants. Meaning of Refrigerant 2. With regard to miscibility with oil F-22 presents the peculiarity that is fully miscible with oil at the temperatures in the high side of the plant, whereas it is only partially miscible at usual evaporating temperatures. Related Information: 1910 Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1910.1000, Air contaminants. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. This group contains organic compounds, and many hydrocarbons are used as refrigerant in industrial installations. ANSI/IIAR 3, American National Standard for Ammonia Refrigeration Valves. The specific heat of liquid should be low. It is a colourless, pungent, highly toxic gas but is a very efficient refrigerant with zero Global Warming Potential (GWP). Online – Ammonia Refrigeration Process Safety ($1,185.00 per person) Online – Ammonia Refrigeration Best Practices ($1,485.00 per person) Online – Steam Boilers ($1,185.00 per person) If there is a class, course, test, certification exam you are needing online, give us a call and we will be glad to assist you in your training needs. Last month, a 5000 pound ammonia leak occurred at a Boston-area seafood warehouse that killed one worker and forced a shelter-in-place order from Boston Police. ASHRAE promotes a variety of programs to preserve the economic benefits of ammonia refrigeration while providing for the management of … Tables listing the refrigerant design… Applications. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. It is regarded as the most useful refrigerants because of its high latent heat, moderate working pressures, high critical temperature and small sensible heat compared with the latent heat. Desirable properties of secondary refrigerants mainly are its specific gravity, freezing point, thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat. Problematic procedures may be to blame. Related … It is much less expensive than some other refrigerants. However, at normal temperatures the swept volume necessary for a certain output is about 70% larger than when ammonia is used. The refrigerant should be non-inflammable and non-explosive. In the US as of 2019, approximately 88% of ammonia was used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously. Ammonia has a slight flammable gas classification at level 1; however, it can be ignited easily or have an explosive reaction in the right conditions (aka a large energy source). Examples are- CH4 (methane), C2H6 (ethane) etc. Disclaimer 8. They are therefore subject to the same legal regulations as R22 (R22 as transitional refrigerant). Refrigerant Concentration Limit / Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health in … They are largely used in modern plants. Industrial Chemicals (CO 2, Hydrocarbons, Ammonia) + How HFOs Work 6 HFC Hydro fluoro carbon HFO Hydro fluoro olefin Weaker double bond in HFOs allows for short atmospheric life, while maintaining stability in systems. The properties of some of the common refrigerants in use are given below: This primary refrigerant has long been used as refrigerant in large ice-making and cold storage plants. Formerly the number of useful refrigerants was very limited. List of 7 Air Standard Cycles | Thermodynamics, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. R-1234yf: HFO Molecule 7 R-134a HFO-1234yf Formula CH 2 FCF 3 CF 3 CF = CH 2 Molecular Weight 102 114 ODP 0 0 GWP … Industrial Refrigeration. Company name CSBP Limited Address State Postcode Kwinana Beach Road, KWINANA Western Australia 6167 Thus the refrigerant may be classified as Pri­mary refrigerants and Secondary refrigerants. Its boiling point is -23.7°C at atmospheric pressure. ammonia refrigeration technology in some designers, installers, contractors and site staff. Box 70013 Boise, ID 83707 T 1-208-336-2110 1.4. Primary refrigerants are those fluids, which are used directly as working fluids, for example in vapor compression and vapor absorption refrigeration systems. Substance name : Anhydrous Ammonia - Refrigeration Grade Product code : M11004 1.2. ASHRAE considers that the continued use of ammonia is necessary for food preservation and air conditioning. Ammonia, which is a Class 2L material, has been used in large industrial refrigeration systems for over 100 years. For example, in the case of ammonia, which is both toxic and flammable at the right concentration, the allowed concentration in an occupied space for ammonia is 320 ppm per ASHRAE Standard 34. release of group #2 (Ammonia is B2 group refrigerant) and #3 refrigerants shall comply with the requirements of hazardous area classification. Ammonia, which has been in use for many years, is classified as B2L; R-152a is an A2 refrigerant, and all hydrocarbons are classified as A3. Refrigerant Class A1 Majority of HFC refrigerants in commercial and residential use. A2L and B2L are lower flammability refrigerants with a maximum burning velocity of 10 cm/s. Privacy Policy 9. release of group #2 (Ammonia is B2 group refrigerant) and #3 refrigerants shall comply with the requirements of hazardous area classification. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Classification of Refrigerants Refrigerant Standards/Regulations Safety Standards ), Standards (e.g., ASHRAE 15 & EN 378) and guidelines use this number to determine what size charge can be permitted in a particular facility such that, if one were to leak all that charge into an occupied space, you would not exceed this concentration limit. In order to avoid confusion an international agreement has been proposed to use letter F (Freon). It has been proposed as a refrig­erant in plants working with centrifugal compressors. 4.3 Classification of Refrigerants 4.4 Designation of Refrigerants 4.5 Desirable Properties of Refrigerants 4.5.1 Thermodynamic Properties ... ammonia has a better conductivity than that of R12 or R22 and is more 1 3 4 T s 3 2 4 1 p h. 58 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Ammonia has been used as a natural refrigerant in industrial refrigeration plants for over 100 years. ANSI/IIAR 2, American National Standard for Safe Design of Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration Systems. Large concentration of vapour in air may produce unconsciousness or even death but when well diluted with air it has little effect on human body. A refrigerant is a working substance which is used in refrigerating machine. The following table provides an overview of ASHRAE’s Standard 34 refrigerant safety group classification. The Linde Group offers high quality refrigerant ammonia. For some of them, production has already been discontinued. It should be non-corrosive to metals and inert to oils. in presence of humidity. R717 (Ammonia) Ammonia has been used in industrial applications since the 1930s and is generally acknowledged as being the most efficient refrigerant. Further, the HSE has clarified that the requirement for area classification applies to any parts of the plant that include sources of release and is not restricted solely to machinery rooms. It is very soluble in water forming ammonium hydroxide. There may be locations in ammonia refrigeration systems that are Class 1 Division 2 hazardous locations. There are two classes for toxicity: lower toxicity (Class A) and higher toxicity (Class B). In the last session, we had discussed Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle and in today's session, we can discuss in detail the concept of Refrigeration along with its Definition, Unit, Classification of Refrigerants and Applications.

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